Update from ILA on COVID-19: We are committed to keeping you informed of all the latest developments, including the impact on the ILA 2020 Conference in Columbus, OH, and how ILA is helping educators during this period. Let us know what support you need and stay engaged using these free resources.

Literacy Now

Digital Literacies
Making a Case for Reading Joy
ILA 2019 Replay
Making a Case for Reading Joy
ILA 2019 Replay
    • Teaching With Tech
    • Digital Literacies

    Helping Students, Teachers, and Parents Make Sense of the Screen Time Debate

    By Ian O'Byrne
     | Aug 03, 2018
    Screentime DebateNearly a cliché after two decades of development, it is clear that the internet has profoundly changed the ways in which we read, write, communicate, and learn. Given these sweeping changes, one significant conversation centers on the use of internet-enabled devices as they relate to school policy, teaching practices, and the well-being of children. Current conversations about screen time often reduce the discussion to a simplistic debate: How much time should youth spend on devices? Although many scholars argue that web-based inquiry, multimodal creation, and communication of ideas in web-based environments support the development of fundamental skills of digital literacy, conversations about screen time in education, medicine, and mass media focus predominantly on the time youth spend on devices. These discussions overlook fundamentally important questions about what youth are learning by using digital devices, with whom, and for what purposes.

    Although research over the last two decades has shown that reading and writing in digital spaces requires complex skills, literacy development is often not addressed in conversations about screen time. Instead, articles focus on the damage that screens may cause to developing brains. For example, in a Psychology Today article, Victoria Dunckley opens with the claim, “Addiction aside, a much broader concern that begs awareness is the risk that screen time is creating subtle damage even in children with ‘regular’ exposure, considering that the average child clocks in more than seven hours a day.” This article cites information from the Kaiser Family Foundation's 2010 report. Although all the data she presents are from studies of internet- and video game-addicted youth, she encourages parents to “arm yourself with the truth about the potential damage screen time is capable of imparting—particularly in a young, still-developing brain.”

    Making sense of the debate

    To address these concerns, a nonprofit organization, Children and Screens: Institute of Digital Media and Child Development helped prepare a special report for the Pediatrics journal. The supplement is the result of a collaboration of more than 130 recognized experts in the field from a diverse background of disciplines, institutions and perspectives organized into 22 workgroups. Research spanning the fields of psychiatry, psychology, neuroscience, pediatrics, sociology, anthropology, communications, education, law, public health, and public policy informed this work. You can read more about the key findings and takeaways, as well as frequently asked questions here.

    As part of this supplement, I worked with Kristen Turner, Tessa Jolls, Michelle Hagerman, Troy Hicks, Bobbie Eisenstock, and Kristine Pytash on a piece titled “Developing Digital and Media Literacies in Children and Adolescents.” In our article, we talk about the tension that exists as digital and media literacy are essential to participation in society. We make recommendations for research and policy priorities as we ask questions about the ability of individuals to have access to information at their fingertips at all times. Specifically, we ask, What specific competencies must young citizens acquirein this global culture and economy? We examine how these competencies might influence pedagogy. Additionally, we consider how student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors may have changed. Finally, we present guidance on the best ways to assess students’ digital and media literacy.

    We believe these questions underscore what parents, educators, health professionals, and community leaders need to know to ensure that youth become digitally and media literate. Experimental and pilot programs in the digital and media literacy fields are yielding insights, but gaps in understanding and lack of support for research and development continue to impede growth in these areas. Learning environments no longer depend on seat time in factory-like school settings. Learning happens anywhere, anytime, and productivity in the workplace depends on digital and media literacy. To create the human capital necessary for success and sustainability in a technology-driven world, we must invest in the literacy practices of our youth.

    Problematizing our own practices

    Soon after our article was released in the Pediatrics supplement, many of the authors began to examine our own relationships and practices as they relate to the topic of screen time. We examined this from our roles as educator, as researcher, as parent, as friend, and as neighbor. Those who are parents considered the role of screen time in our relationships with our children. We considered the times we were asked by family members questions about how much screen time is safe for children. We considered the times we questioned whether or not time spent coding online counted as screen time, and whether it more “valuable” than simply watching YouTube videos. We considered the times we were asked by family and friends about the appropriate age for children to own their first mobile device. Across all the questions, in all of these contexts, we were left dumbfounded. As the “experts” in these spaces, we knew what the research suggested, but many times it looked different in our own practices and relationships.

    These questions and inconsistencies led a group of scholars to begin reaching out to other educators, researchers, developers, and parents to see if they also had many of the same questions and concerns that we did. They promptly indicated that they too had the same struggles and recognized that there was little to no comprehensive research on the topic.

    There seemed to be a lot of hysteria from various news and media sources as parents and educators were left afraid about the overall impact of screens on youth. Finally, there was little to no discussion happening across different spaces to allow people to ask questions, have discussions with experts in the field, and inform their practices.

    Make your voice heard

    Together with Kristin Turner, I have started a research project, titled “Beyond the ‘Screentime’ Debate: Developing Digital and Media Literacies with Youth and Teens,” This project builds on work done by the Digital and Media Literacies workgroup of the Children and Screens Institute to address these challenges and create a discussion space to unite the varied perspectives that are impacted by these questions. This research project seeks to explore and redefine the definition of screen time, to connect it with digital literacy skills and dispositions, and to explore complex, dynamic, creative digital learning as antidote to the atrophy we all fear.

    Our main focus in this research project is to create dialogue across spaces to help examine and unpack the questions in this debate. We want to know how you define screen time and what it looks like in your lives. We want to know more about some of the challenges and opportunities you face with the use of screens. Finally, we would like to know about any tips, tricks, or habits you utilize in relation to screens in your role as an educator, parent, employee, or human being. This research project refocuses the screen time debate by asking: What digital and media competencies must young citizens acquire? How do these competencies affect school policy and pedagogy? How are students’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors transformed by engaging with various forms of media?

    Anyone can get involved in this research project by joining the open public forums on our website. We’re using FlipGrid for this open research project, and you can go directly to the topics at flipgrid.com/screentime. The password to get in and get involved is “Screentime.” The topics and questions on FlipGrid are the same ones that are on our website. Our goal is to provide a space for all individuals to discuss the future of our youth, and the role of screen time in those futures. We look forward to having you join this screen time discussion.

    Ian O’Byrne is an educator, researcher, innovator, and activist. His research investigates the literacy practices of individuals in online and hybrid spaces. Ian’s work can be found on his website. His weekly newsletter focuses on the intersections between technology, education, and literacy. Ian is an assistant professor of literacy education at the College of Charleston.

    This article is part of a series from the International Literacy Association Technology in Literacy Education Special Interest Group (TILE-SIG).

    Read More
    • Classroom Teacher
    • Literacy Coach
    • Teaching With Tech
    • Librarian
    • Literacy Education Student
    • Digital Literacy
    • Literacies
    • 21st Century Skills
    • Foundational Skills
    • Topics
    • Teacher Educator
    • Reading Specialist
    • Policymaker
    • Other/Literacy Champion
    • Job Functions
    • Digital Literacies

    The Global Read Aloud: Digital Tools to Connect Readers and Inspire Action

    By Katie Kelly and Tatiana Oliveira
     | Jul 06, 2018

    The Global Read Aloud (GRA) provides an opportunity for students of all ages to connect with each other to discuss a common text. Using tools such as Edmodo, Kidblog, Padlet, and Twitter, middle grade students participating in the 2017 GRA connected with preservice teachers at Furman University in South Carolina to discuss Linda Sue Park’s A Long Walk to Water. The novel depicts the lives of children in South Sudan through the true story of a Sudanese “lost boy” named Salva Dut who is forced to flee his country due to war and the fictional story of a young Sudanese girl named Nya who spends her days walking to fetch water for her family.

    Many students sought to better understand Nya’s daily eight-hour journey to fetch water. One preservice teacher connected with a class in Ontario, Canada, who participated in a “water walk” and shared their experience on Twitter. Using the hashtag #GRAWater, another preservice teacher found a school who planned a similar event and raised money for an international nonprofit.

    Below is an Edmodo exchange between a preservice teacher in South Carolina and seventh graders in Indiana discussing the themes of courage and determination in the text.

    GRA Digital Tools
    GRA Digital Tools

    kelly-pic-3 copyAnother preservice teacher replied to the Tweet of a cartoon (below) by reflecting on privileges such as access to education that many girls in developing countries, like Nya, do not have. The GRA helped these preservice teachers expand their perspectives on issues depicted in the text and presented them with ways to help students build agency through online discussion.
    GRA Digital Tools

    GRA Digital ToolsUsing Kidblog, fifth-grade students from Boston, MA, examined how characters in the text demonstrated empathy and considered how they might do the same. They responded to weekly questions about themes from the text and shared their newfound understandings of the hardships children face in South Sudan. Below, one student discussed how the novel helped shape her perception of refugees.

    GRA Digital ToolsThe preservice teachers also connected with a local fifth-grade class who read A Long Walk to Water. These fifth graders extended their reading to include a collection of fiction, poetry, and articles about refugees. The more they learned from their reading and online research about the plight of refugees, the more they became inspired to inform others. They created infographics including facts and figures about countries where large numbers of refugees flee due to persecution.

    The fifth graders then organized a “Walk for Refugees” in their community to raise awareness and collect donations for a nonprofit. They shared about the event at their school and through social media. Because of their efforts, they raised over $3,000 for a nonprofit.

    When given meaningful opportunities to use technology to connect readers near and far, students become more engaged with reading, deepen their comprehension, expand their worldviews, and develop a better understanding of themselves and their place in the world. Ultimately, using these tools to connect to a larger audience led students to take action and cultivate change. As Linda Sue Park says, “Can a children’s book save the world? No. But, the young people who read them can.”

    The following websites can be used to create infographics:

    Katie (Stover) Kelly is an associate professor of education at Furman University in Greenville, SC and coauthor of From Pencils to Podcasts: Digital Tools to Transform K-6 Literacy Practices (Solution Tree) and Smuggling Writing: Strategies That Get Students to Write Every Day, in Every Content Area, Grades 3-12 (Corwin). Find her on Twitter @ktkelly14.

    Tatiana Oliveira is an undergraduate preservice teacher at Furman University in Greenville, SC. She is interested in the intersectionality of education and social justice and plans to pursue a master’s degree in literacy. Find her on Twitter @tmoliveira17.

    This article is part of a series from the International Literacy Association Technology in Literacy Education Special Interest Group (TILE-SIG).

    Read More
    • Librarian
    • Administrator
    • Classroom Teacher
    • Job Functions
    • Teaching With Tech
    • Digital Literacy
    • Literacies
    • 21st Century Skills
    • Foundational Skills
    • Topics
    • Teacher Educator
    • Reading Specialist
    • Other/Literacy Champion
    • Literacy Education Student
    • Literacy Coach
    • Digital Literacies

    Empowering Students as Guides and Lifeguards of the Internet

    By Paul Morsink
     | Jun 29, 2018

    Sticky Note“Okay Web Guides, what type of ‘reader alert’ or ‘navigation help’ sticky note should we put on this website to help other sixth graders? What should it say?”

    One by one, the sixth graders chimed in.

    “The alert could say, ‘Make sure you also visit other websites about global warming,’” one student suggested.

    “We could include links to other websites,’” said another.

    The brainstorming discussion continued for several more minutes. Then it was time to type the sticky note and place it on the target website. Although the students were familiar with this step, the moment of actually placing the sticky note where it would be seen by other sixth graders generated lively discussion and excitement.

    “Put it here in the white space where it’ll be easier to see!”

    “Let’s check that the links work.”

    As we concluded the activity for the day, I asked the group, “How many of you are ready to be a Web Guide on your own tomorrow? How many of you are ready to train someone else to be a Web Guide?”

    In this small group of five summer campers, everyone’s hand shot up.

    The importance of roles and identities for learning 

    Literacy growth is about acquiring new skills and new knowledge, but it’s also about growing into new roles. These roles are an important part of literacy development because they connect the skills and knowledge our students acquire in school—about vocabulary, text structure, reading comprehension strategies, and so much more—to identities and purposes that have meaning and value beyond just “doing school.”

    Consider, for example, a class of sixth graders reading expository informational texts to learn about pond and lake ecosystems. If these students have no purpose for learning other than doing well on a future test and no role to play other than that of diligent student, the available research suggests that many may come away without deep understanding of ecosystems and without much improvement in their ability to read and write expository informational texts.

    By contrast, if learning about pond and lake ecosystems is connected to an authentic task (such as producing an informational brochure for visitors at a nearby nature center) and inhabiting a meaningful new role (such as environmental scientist or freelance designer of educational materials), more students are likely to feel engaged and motivated.

    As they grapple with new technical terms and get better at parsing dense informational texts, they aren’t just accumulating knowledge and skills to get a good grade. These students are inhabiting a new role that connects them to an audience and adds value to the world—making contributions about which they can feel proud.

    Learning to be a safe and critical web user

    This issue of roles and purposes is on my mind this summer in relation to the internet safety concerns Michelle Hagerman addressed in her recent blog post as well as the challenge of helping all students become critical seekers and users of information on the web.

    Working with students in grades 4–12 as well as with preservice teachers, I’ve observed that, while the self-protective purpose of staying safe on the internet is generally acknowledged, learning strategies for staying safe and becoming a critical reader and researcher on the internet isn’t usually connected to any new role or identity students can grow into and feel proud of.

    As a result, I’ve seen students leave class having learned a thing or two about noticing a website’s domain name (e.g., .com, .net, .org), checking out a website’s “About” page, and not divulging one’s name or address online. But I often have not felt confident that this new knowledge is going to stick and be applied in the future.

    Growing guides and lifeguards of the internet

    Internet GuideAlongside K–12 colleagues, I’m working this summer to develop curriculum that puts roles center-stage. Our idea is to have students train to become “guides” and “lifeguards” of the internet. They will learn to use free web tools such as Diigo and InsertLearning to provide peers and younger students at their school with tips, alerts, helpful resources, and encouragement to safely and critically navigate designated websites.

    The appeal of these free web tools is that the annotations they create appear to the user to reside on the web page where they are posted. When other students visit an annotated web page, as long as they have logged into Diigo or InsertLearning and are members of a designated group (Diigo) or class (Insertlearning), they will encounter sticky notes and other annotations as though they were part of the web page (as illustrated above).

    Internet Lifeguard Our initial trials with this approach look promising. For students, the work is about more than just gaining more knowledge and skills for self-protection and individual success on the web; it’s about stepping into a new role in a community of learners, looking out for others, and developing knowledge and skills that feel relevant and valuable.

    What innovative ideas have you tried out to connect your students to meaningful roles and purposes to deepen their literacy learning?

    Paul Morsink is an assistant professor in Reading and Language Arts at Oakland University in Michigan.

    This article is part of a series from the International Literacy Association Technology in Literacy Education Special Interest Group (TILE-SIG).

    Read More
    • Teaching With Tech
    • Literacy Coach
    • Librarian
    • Job Functions
    • Classroom Teacher
    • Digital Literacy
    • Literacies
    • 21st Century Skills
    • Foundational Skills
    • Topics
    • Teacher Educator
    • Reading Specialist
    • Partner Organization
    • Other/Literacy Champion
    • Literacy Education Student
    • Administrator
    • Digital Literacies

    Tuning in to the Community: Using Digital Devices to Amplify School Sounds

    By Cassie Brownell
     | Jun 22, 2018

    Student Using iPad“Wait, bring it closer! We need to see if we can hear the caterpillar walking on the wall!”

    As the first grader called his fourth-grade buddy carrying the iPad to the brick wall of the school’s exterior, I chuckled to myself both with surprise and delight.

    Following a series of read-alouds and grade-level activities focused on sound, noise, silence, and listening in their respective classrooms, the two boys were exploring the sounds of their school community by recording them on an iPad. Their recordings were in response to a prompt which asked “What sounds are most important for a new student or visitor to hear to understand our school community?” This prompt was tied to the class activities the boys had completed within their individual homerooms as well as the ideas they had brainstormed together the previous day.

    Broadly, the boys’ teachers and I were interested in considering how children hear in the space of the school. As others have discussed, the current era is one wherein listening is more individualized than ever. This is in part due to the proliferation of smartphones and tablets as personal sound systems that many children and adults carry in their pockets. Thus, the teachers and I were curious how hearing takes shape in their public elementary school, one of the few public spaces in which access to such devices is limited.

    The two boys were actively attuned to the world around them while also attempting to use the map of community sounds they had previously created. For example, neither boy had mentioned a caterpillar when they discussed the prompt beforehand, but, by attending to visual cues, the boys were able to hear the sounds of their school community in new ways. At the same time, the boys also worked together to record sounds they had anticipated. In one instance, the fourth-grade boy glided across the zip-line-esque track on the playground while his friend recorded the act.

    The two boys I mention here were not only attuning to the world as they could recall it, but also to the variability they experienced as students each day. The boys were quite nuanced in their listening and recording; they attended to the sounds of the water fountain as water flowed from the spout and to the hum of the motor that ensured the water arrived cool to each patron.

    The sounds the boys listened to and for were also often sounds that my adult ears could never have expected. For instance, while in the gym, the boys insisted their peers run around them, squeaking their shoes. Other children’s recordings were marked in similar ways—they recorded “big” sounds, such as the flush of the classroom’s individual toilet, as well as “small" sounds, such as the brushing of eraser remains from a desk or the tapping of a peer’s pencil. For myself—a former elementary teacher and now as a researcher—many of the sounds the children noticed were not necessarily the immediate sounds I would call to mind when I think about schooling. Children’s ears are, in many ways, better equipped to hear the sounds of their communities than adults—some of the sounds that we hear as noise help form a child's understanding of community. 

    Through the varied read-alouds and activities the teachers facilitated, the children’s vocabulary for discussing and describing sounds grew. But, it was only through the recording and playback of sounds on the iPad that children could amplify the sounds they wished for others to hear. Through this activity, the children were encouraged to focus on process rather than an end product. Likewise, children were positioned as experts of the school—a role that is sometimes hard for children to access in everyday elementary classrooms.

    For their teachers and for me, the children’s attuning to sounds, such as the caterpillar’s slow and steady walk within the school community, encouraged us to open our ears—and our minds—in new ways. As a team, we talked about persistent sounds in the classroom that we had not noticed until the children called them to our attention, such as the seemingly quiet hum of the interactive whiteboard. In this way, the adventure of watching 25 pairs of children bound across the schoolyard and weaving through its halls with iPads in hand, was a listening experience we won’t soon forget.

    Cassie J. Brownell is an assistant professor at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education within the University of Toronto and the 2017 recipient of the Helen M. Robinson Dissertation Grant. 

    This article is part of a series from the International Literacy Association Technology in Literacy Education Special Interest Group (TILE-SIG).

    Read More
    • Corporate Sponsor
    • Digital Literacies
    • Administrator
    • Classroom Teacher
    • Librarian
    • Digital Literacy
    • Literacies
    • Writing
    • 21st Century Skills
    • Foundational Skills
    • Topics
    • Reading Specialist
    • Other/Literacy Champion
    • Literacy Education Student
    • Literacy Coach
    • Teaching With Tech

    Engaging Children in Photo-Writing Adventures

    By Tammy Ryan
     | Jun 15, 2018
    internet-safety

    Recall fun adventures shared with a child. Did these moments occur while grocery shopping, fishing, building sandcastles, eating ice cream, baking cookies, swimming, visiting Disney, or discussing a book or new experience? Any one of these activities, along with many others, can be used to engage children in a visual storytelling activity. Following are step-by-step instructions and examples to inspire photo-writing adventures.  

    Steps to create writing adventures

    • First, decide on a child-friendly, motivating adventure. While completing the adventure, ask the child what they are seeing, hearing, doing, and learning. Repeat, comment on, and ask probing questions about what the child is saying and experiencing. Add sophisticated language and vocabulary. For example, if the child says, “I like seeing the butterflies.” You repeat, “I like observing butterflies, too. I especially like how they flutter their wings back and forth. Tell me more about what you like observing.”
    • Then, using an iPhone, iPad, or tablet, the child uses the device’s camera to take photos of what is being discussed, explored, and experienced. While reviewing photos with the child, restate comments associated with each photo.
    • Next, import photos to a Microsoft Word document, Microsoft PowerPoint, or creative writing app such as Story Creator. When reviewing each photo, talk about what occurred, restate comments, vocabulary, and sophisticated language associated with each photo. Using the keyboard, type what is said. Assist younger children in locating and typing letters, words, sentences, or type what the child is saying. Stop after every few words or sentences and, with the child, reread what was typed, using the cursor to track what is being said. Edit as needed. Use colored font to highlight important vocabulary and give the adventure a creative title.
    • Lastly,  the child rereads summer adventures with others and shares them with family and friends using Gmail, Blogger, or Facebook.

    How photo-writing adventures facilitate learning

    Learning occurs through interest, doing, visuals, and repetition. When interested in a topic, we think more deeply about what we see, hear, and experience. When “doing” or participating in the process, we remember more clearly what was learned or experienced. Visuals stimulate recall of previous conversations, language, and vocabulary. Repetition in hearing and engaging in oral language supports reading and writing development while repetition in rereading written adventures strengthens phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension—all essential ingredients to successful reading and writing experiences.

    Examples below should be personalized to a child’s interest and stage of reading and writing development. Follow or modify examples to create your own writing adventures.  

    Cook together

    Involve a child in helping with each step of a recipe. During each step, stop and discuss what’s happening, why, and how. Engage the child in repeating what is being said, adding important terms and vocabulary. Take photos of each step of the process. When reviewing each photo, the child restates what happened, how, and why while you type text next to or below the photo. This experience reinforces sequencing skills. More cooking activities can be found here

    Discuss favorite books

    After reading aloud a book, you both retell your favorite part, character, setting, create a new ending, or describe facts learned. Draw your retelling and take photos of the drawings. After importing photos, type your comments next to each photo. This activity strengthens comprehension skills.  

    Document a trip or vacation

    Involve the child in taking photos of various points of interest. Engage the child in conversation about the photo. After importing, assist the child in adding labels, keywords, names of places, locations, date, time, special moments, or important facts. This activity reinforces purpose and importance of text features when reading informational text.

    Visit a store

    Stores offer endless opportunities to capture and categorize products depicting favorite colors, textures, shapes, or items representing letters of the alphabet. After importing, type the word associated with each photo to teach important vocabulary or alphabet letters.

    Walk and talk

    A walk around one’s neighborhood offers ample opportunities to explore, learn, and ask questions about the environment, birds, rocks, wild animals, marine animals, and plants. Plan a walk and select a topic of interest. Child then photographs and records observations of various points of interest. Discuss what was captured and why, supporting the development of inquiry and critical thinking skills.

    Tammy Ryan has over 25 years of teaching experience. She is a former associate professor of reading education at Jacksonville University, where she taught undergraduate and graduate courses in reading. This article is part of a series from the International Literacy Association’s Technology in Literacy Education Special Interest Group (TILE-SIG).

    This article is part of a series from the International Literacy Association Technology in Literacy Education Special Interest Group (TILE-SIG).

    Read More
Back to Top

Categories

Recent Posts

Archives